In thinking about the governance of climate engineering, it is crucial to recognize that “governance” is a broader term than “regulation.” Regulation typically involves formal laws and policies imposed by governments or international organizations, often backed by the threat of criminal penalties or other formal sanctions. Regulation is one type of governance but certainly not the only one. FCEA understands governance to include any system of formal or informal rules intended to control or influence research into or deployment of climate engineering, either internationally, transnationally, within a single country, or within nongovernmental organizations or civil society more broadly. Examples of non-regulatory governance mechanisms include non-binding resolutions by intergovernmental organizations; voluntary codes of conduct for researchers; rules and requirements imposed by funders, universities, or professional associations; memoranda of understandings between nongovernmental organizations, governments, or international organizations; and so on.
Geoengineering Research Governance Project (GRGP) Oxford Workshop on a Code of Conduct for Responsible Geoengineering Research – Anna-Maria HubertJuly 3, 2017
“Should we ‘hack the climate’ to fight global warming?” conversation on NPRMay 17, 2017
Climate Engineering under the Paris Agreement: A Legal and Policy PrimerNovember 10, 2016